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Explain the theory of motivation.

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Theories of motivation explain the concept of motivation. Motivation is that energy which push us to work hard. There are two type of theories- 

1.Content theories

  • Maslow's need hierarchy - Maslow has explained needs at a certain  point of time.

(a)Physiological needs - These are the basic needs for the survival of human being. Eg, air,water etc.

(b)Safety needs - After fulfilling the basic needs, then comes the security and safety needs. Eg. shelter, employment etc.

(c)Social needs - People has to follow social needs like need for love, affection etc. Relationships are formed at this level.

(d)Esteem needs - concerned with self-respect, self-confidence.

(e)Self-actualization needs - These needs are related to the development of one’s intrinsic capabilities.

  • Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory - The Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory is given by Fredrick Herzberg . Herzberg concluded that there are two job conditions independent that affect the behavior differently.

(a)Maintenance/ hygiene factor -These factors are related to job conditions. Like company policy and administration, technical supervision, job security, working conditions, interpersonal relationship with peers, subordinates and supervisors, salary, job security, personal life, etc. 

(b)Motivational factor - Achievement, Recognition, Advancement, Work-itself, Possibility of growth and Responsibility.These factors motivate employees.

  • McClleland's needs theory - was proposed by a psychologist David McClelland. McClelland’s Needs Theory is sometimes referred to as Three Need theory.

(a)Power - The people with high power needs seek high-level positions in the organization.

(b)Affiliation - People with high need for affiliation derives pleasure from being loved by all and tend to avoid the pain of being rejected. 

(c)Achievement - High achievers take the moderate risks. High achievers seek to obtain the immediate feedback for the work done by them.

  • Alderfer's ERG theory - is the extension of Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy, wherein the Maslow’s five needs are categorized into three categories-

(a)Existence needs - Those needs that relate to the physiological and safety aspects of human beings and are a necessary for the survival.

(b)Relatedness needs - It refer to the social needs, that an individual seeks to establish relationships with those for whom he cares. 

(c)Growth needs -  It refers to needs that influence an individual to explore his maximum potential in the existing environment.

2.Process theory

  • Vroom's expectancy theory
  • Adam's equity theory
  • Goal setting theory
  • Reinforcement theory